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Learn About SARTs: Section 2


[1] Sexual violence is an encompassing term the victim support community widely uses, but has no legal ramifications.

[2] National Sexual Violence Resource Center, 2010, What is Sexual Violence?Retrieved June 6, 2017, from LINK

[3] Lydia Guy, 2008, “Re-visioning the Sexual Violence Continuum,” Shifting the Paradigm: Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence,Linthicum, MD: American College of Health Association, 10-11. Retrieved October 11, 2016, from LINK

[4] Washington Coalition of Sexual Assault Programs, 2015, What is Sexual Violence, Sexual Abuse, and Sexual Assault? Retrieved October 12, 2016, from LINK

[5] Matthew J. Breiding, Sharon G. Smith, Kathleen C. Basile, Mikel L. Walters, Jieru Chen, and Melissa T. Merrick, 2014, “Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Violence, Stalking, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization: National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report63(8): 1–18. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 6. Retrieved October 11, 2016, from LINK

[6] Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape, n.d., Oppression and Sexual Violence. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from LINK

[7] Rachel Davis, Lisa Fujie Parks, and Larry Cohen, 2006, Sexual Violence and the Spectrum of Prevention: Towards a Community Solution, Enola, PA: National Sexual Violence Resource Center. Retrieved October 13, 2016, from LINK

[8] Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape, n.d., Racism and Sexual Violence: What's the Connection?Retrieved May 26, 2017, from LINK

[9] Katie A. Ports, Derek C. Ford, and Melissa T. Merric, 2016, “Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Victimization in Adulthood,” Child Abuse & Neglect 51: 313-322.

[10] 18 U.S. Code Chapter 109A – Sexual Abuse, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Law School. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from LINK

[11] Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network, n.d., What Consent Looks Like.Retrieved November 28, 2016, from LINK

[12] National Sexual Violence Resource Center, 2015, Info and Stats for Journalists: What is Sexual Violence? Retrieved October 7, 2016, from LINK

Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network, n.d., Legal Role of Consent. Retrieved March 17, 2017 from LINK

[13] Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network, n.d., Guide to State Laws.Retrieved December 6, 2016, from LINK

[14] Joanne Archambault and Kimberly A. Lonsway, 2016, Law and Investigative Strategy: What Kind of Sexual Assault Is This?Colville, WA: End Violence Against Women International. Retrieved March 17, 2017, from LINK

[15] Bill Redeker, August 28, 2003, “Rapist Convicted on Victim's Testimony,” ABC News.Retrieved on April 8, 2017, from LINK

[16] Jennifer Truman and Rachel Morgan, October 2016, Criminal Victimization, 2015,Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved October 27, 2016, from LINK

[17] Jane Wiseman, July 2015, Incidence and Prevalence of Sexual Offending (Part II), Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved December 6, 2016, from LINK

[18] International Association of Chiefs of Police, 2000, What Do Victims Want? Effective Strategies to Achieve Justice for Victims of Crime. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from LINK

[19] Thema Bryant-Davis, 2005, Thriving in the Wake of Trauma: A Multicultural Guide, Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

[20] Dean Mobbs, Jennifer L. Marchant, Demis Hassabis, Ben Seymour, Geoffrey Tan, Marcus Gray, Predrag Petrovic, Raymond J. Dolan, and Christopher D. Frith, 2009, “From Threat to Fear: The Neural Organization of Defensive Fear Systems in Humans,” The Journal of Neuroscience29(39):12236–12243. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

[21] Lars Schwabe, 2017, “Memory Under Stress: From Single Systems to Network Changes,” European Journal of Neuroscience45(4) ,478-489.

[22] Kasia Kozlowska, Peter Walker, Loyola McLean, and Pascal Carrive, 2015, “Fear and the Defense Cascade: Clinical Implications and Management,” Harvard Review of Psychiatry23(4): 263–287. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

[23] Amy F.T. Arnsten, 2009, “Stress Signaling Pathways That Impair Prefrontal Cortex Structure and Function,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience10(6): 410–422. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

[24] Jocelyn A. Hollander, 2014, “Does Self-Defense Training Prevent Sexual Violence Against Women?” Violence Against Women20(3): 252–269.

Charlene Y. Senn, Misha Eliasziw, Paula C. Barata, Wilfreda E. Thurston, Ian R. Newby-Clark, H. Lorraine Radtke, and Karen L. Hobden, 2015, “Efficacy of a Sexual Assault Resistance Program for University Women,” New England Journal of Medicine372(24): 2326–2335. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

[25] Kasia Kozlowska, Peter Walker, Loyola McLean, and Pascal Carrive, 2015, “Fear and the Defense Cascade: Clinical Implications and Management,” Harvard Review of Psychiatry23(4): 263–287. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

[26] Jessica D. Payne, Alexis M. Chambers, and Elizabeth A. Kensinger, 2012, “Sleep Promotes Lasting Changes in Selective Memory for Emotional Scenes,” Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience6: 1–11. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

Kelly A. Bennion, Katherine R. Mickley Steinmetz, Elizabeth A. Kensinger, and Jessica D. Payne, 2015, “Sleep and Cortisol Interact to Support Memory Consolidation,” Cerebral Cortex25(3): 646–657.

Tony J. Cunningham, Charles R. Cromwell, Sara E. Alger, Elizabeth A. Kensinger, Michael A. Villano, Stephen M. Mattingly, and Jessica D. Payne, 2014, “Psychophysiological Arousal at Encoding Leads to Reduced Reactivity but Enhanced Emotional Memory Following Sleep,” Neurobiology of Learning and Memory114: 155–164.

[27] David M. Diamond, Adam M. Campbell, Collin R. Park, Joshua Halonen, and Phillip R. Zoladz, 2007, “The Temporal Dynamics Model of Emotional Memory Processing: A Synthesis on the Neurobiological Basis of Stress-Induced Amnesia, Flashbulb and Traumatic Memories, and the Yerkes-Dodson Law,” Neural Plasticity2007: 1–33. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

Marian Joëls, R. Angela Sarabdjitsingh, and Henk Karst, 2012, “Unraveling the Time Domains of Corticosteroid Hormone Influences on Brain Activity: Rapid, Slow, and Chronic Modes,” Pharmacological Reviews64(4): 901–938. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

Lars Schwabe, Marian Joëls, Benno Roozendaal, Oliver T. Wolf, and Melly S. Oitzl, 2012, “Stress Effects on Memory: An Update and Integration,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews36(7): 1740–1749.

[28] David M. Diamond, Adam M. Campbell, Collin R. Park, Joshua Halonen, and Phillip R. Zoladz, 2007, “The Temporal Dynamics Model of Emotional Memory Processing: A Synthesis on the Neurobiological Basis of Stress-Induced Amnesia, Flashbulb and Traumatic Memories, and the Yerkes-Dodson Law,” Neural Plasticity2007: 1–33. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

Marian Joëls, R. Angela Sarabdjitsingh, and Henk Karst, 2012, “Unraveling the Time Domains of Corticosteroid Hormone Influences on Brain Activity: Rapid, Slow, and Chronic Modes,” Pharmacological Reviews64(4): 901–938. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

Lars Schwabe, Marian Joëls, Benno Roozendaal, Oliver T. Wolf, and Melly S. Oitzl, 2012, “Stress Effects on Memory: An Update and Integration,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews36(7): 1740–1749.

[29] David M. Diamond, Adam M. Campbell, Collin R. Park, Joshua Halonen, and Phillip R. Zoladz, 2007, “The Temporal Dynamics Model of Emotional Memory Processing: A Synthesis on the Neurobiological Basis of Stress-Induced Amnesia, Flashbulb and Traumatic Memories, and the Yerkes-Dodson Law,” Neural Plasticity2007: 1–33. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

[30] David M. Diamond, Adam M. Campbell, Collin R. Park, Joshua Halonen, and Phillip R. Zoladz, 2007, “The Temporal Dynamics Model of Emotional Memory Processing: A Synthesis on the Neurobiological Basis of Stress-Induced Amnesia, Flashbulb and Traumatic Memories, and the Yerkes-Dodson Law,” Neural Plasticity2007: 1-33. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

James Hopper and David Lisak, December 9, 2014, “Why Rape and Trauma Survivors Have Fragmented and Incomplete Memories,” Time. Retrieved May 31, 2017, from LINK

[32] James A. Bisby, Chris R. Brewin, Julie R. Leitz, and H. Valerie Curran, 2009, “Acute Effects of Alcohol on the Development of Intrusive Memories,” Psychopharmacology204: 655–666.

James A. Bisby, John A. King, Chris R. Brewin, Neil Burgess, and H. Valerie Curran, 2010, “Acute Effects of Alcohol on Intrusive Memory Development and Viewpoint Dependence in Spatial Memory Support a Dual Representation Model,” Biological Psychiatry68(3): 280–286.

[33] James L. McGaugh, 2015, “Consolidating Memories,” Annual Review of Psychology66: 1–24.

[34] Lars Schwabe, 2016, “Memory Under Stress: From Single Systems to Network Changes,” European Journal of Neuroscience45(4): 478–489.

[35] James L. McGaugh, 2015, “Consolidating Memories,” Annual Review of Psychology66: 1–24.

[36] Ted Abel, Robbert Havekes, Jared M. Saletin, and Matthew P. Walker, 2013, “Sleep, Plasticity and Memory Networks From Molecules to Whole-Brain Networks,” Current Biology23(17): R774–R788. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

[37] Jessica D. Payne, Alexis M. Chambers, and Elizabeth A. Kensinger, 2012, “Sleep Promotes Lasting Changes in Selective Memory for Emotional Scenes,” Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience6: 1–11. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

Kelly A. Bennion, Katherine R. Mickley Steinmetz, Elizabeth A. Kensinger, and Jessica D. Payne, 2013, “Sleep and Cortisol Interact to Support Memory Consolidation,” Cerebral Cortex25(3): 646–657.

Tony J. Cunningham, Charles R. Cromwell, Sara E. Alger, Elizabeth A. Kensinger, Michael A. Villano, Stephen M. Mattingly, and Jessica D. Payne, 2014, “Psychophysiological Arousal at Encoding Leads to Reduced Reactivity but Enhanced Emotional Memory Following Sleep,” Neurobiology of Learning and Memory114: 155–164.

Andrea N. Goldstein and Matthew P. Walker, 2014, “The Role of Sleep in Emotional Brain Function,” Annual Review of Clinical Psychology10: 679-708. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

[38] Christopher Wilson, Kimberly A. Lonsway, Joanne Archambault, and James Hopper, 2016, Understanding the Neurobiology of Trauma and Implications for Interviewing Victims, Colville, WA: End Violence Against Women International. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[39] Christopher Wilson, Kimberly A. Lonsway, Joanne Archambault, and James Hopper, 2016, Understanding the Neurobiology of Trauma and Implications for Interviewing Victims, Colville, WA: End Violence Against Women International. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[40] Jeffrey D. Karpicke and Henry L. Roediger III, 2008, “The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning,” Science319(5865): 966–968.

[41] Yadin Dudai, 2012, “The Restless Engram: Consolidations Never End,” Annual Review of Neuroscience35: 227–247.

[42] Amy Smith, Victoria A. Floerke, and Ayanna K. Thomas, 2016, “Retrieval Practice Protects Memory Against Acute Stress,” Science354 (6315): 1046–1048.

[43] National Sexual Violence Resource Center, n.d., Lifepsan: Tools for Trauma-Informed Practice. Retrieved November 1, 2016, from LINK

[44] John Mundt, October, 2013, What Are “Triggers” When Dealing With Post Traumatic Stress?Retrieved November 1, 2016, from LINK

[45] Rebecca Campbell and Sharon Wasco, 2005, "Understanding Rape and Sexual Assault: 20 Years of Progress and Future Directions," Journal of Interpersonal Violence20(1): 127–131.

[46] Michelle J. Bovin and Brian P. Marx, 2011, “The Importance of Peritraumatic Experience in Defining Traumatic Stress,” Psychological Bulletin137(1): 47–67.

[47] University of Michigan Sexual Assault Prevention and Awareness Center, n.d., Common Reactions to Sexual Assault. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from LINK

[48] New York City Alliance Against Sexual Assault, n.d., Factsheets: Anger and Trauma.New York, NY.

[49] Sherry Russell, n.d, Grief and Sexual Abuse.Retrieved October 21, 2016, from LINK

[50] WebMD, n.d., What is Normal Grieving, and What are the Stages of Grief?Retrieved October 21, 2016, from LINK

[51] Dan J. Stein, Karestan C. Koenen, Matthew J. Friedman, Eric Hill, Katie A. McLaughlin, Maria Petukhova, Ayelet Meron Ruscio, Victoria Shahly, David Spiegel, Guilherme Borges, Brendan Bunting, Jose Miguel Caldas-de-Almeida, Giovanni de Girolamo, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Josep Maria Haro, Elie G. Karam, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Sing Lee, Herbert Matschinger, Maya Mladenova, Jose Posada-Villa, Hisateru Tachimori, Maria Carmen Viana, and Ronald C. Kessler, 2013, “Dissociation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence From the World Mental Health Surveys,” Biological Psychiatry73(4): 302–312. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

[52] Ruth A. Lanius, Bethany Brand, Eric Vermetten, Paul A. Frewen, and David Spiegel, 2012, “The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Rationale, Clinical and Neurobiological Evidence, and Implications,” Depression and Anxiety29(8): 701–708.

Andrew A. Nicholson, Maria Densmore, Paul A. Frewen, Jean Théberge, Richard W.J. Neufeld, Margaret C. McKinnon, and Ruth A. Lanius, 2015, “The Dissociative Subtype of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Unique Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Basolateral and Centromedial Amygdala Complexes,” Neuropsychopharmacology40(10): 2317–2326. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

Sherain Harricharan, Daniela Rabellino, Paul A. Frewen, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C. McKinnon, Allan N. Schore, and Ruth A. Lanius, 2016, “fMRI Functional Connectivity of the Periaqueductal Gray in PTSD and its Dissociative Subtype,” Brain and Behavior6(12): 1–16. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

[53] Rebecca Campbell, 1998, "The Community Response to Rape: Victims' Experiences with the Legal, Medical, and Mental Health Systems," American Journal of Community Psychology26(3): 355–379.

Dean Kilpatrick and Anne Seymour, April 1992, Rape in America: A Report to the Nation,Arlington, VA: National Victim Center. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from LINK

[54] Human Rights Watch, May 2016, Booted: Lack of Recourse for Wrongfully Discharged U.S. Military Rape Survivors. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from LINK

[55] National Sexual Violence Resource Center and Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape, 2012, The Process of Coming Out: Sexual Violence and Individuals Who Identify as LGBTQ. Retrieved October 21, 2016, from LINK

[56] University of California, San Francisco, 1998, “Coping Strategies,” Research: Psychosocial Notebook. Retrieved November 30, 2016, from LINK

[57] Katherine Lorenz, and Sarah Ullman, 2016, "Exploring Correlates of Alcohol-Specific Social Reactions in Alcohol-Involved Sexual Assaults," Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma25(10): 1058–1078.

[58] Patrick O'Leary, and James Barber, 2008, "Gender Differences in Silencing Following Childhood Sexual Abuse," Journal of Child Sexual Abuse 17(2): 133-143.

[59] Ananda Amstadter, and Laura Vernon, 2008, "A Preliminary Examination of Thought Suppression, Emotion Regulation, and Coping in a Trauma-Exposed Sample," Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma17(3): 279–295.

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[63] National Sexual Assault Coalition Resource Sharing Project, and National Sexual Violence Resource Center, 2013, Building Cultures of Care: A Guide for Sexual Assault Services Programs. Retrieved June 23, 2017, from LINK

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[68] Michigan Domestic and Sexual Violence Prevention and Treatment Board, Prosecuting Attorneys Association of Michigan, n.d., In-Service/Roll Call Training Video: Adult Sexual Assault: A Trauma-Informed Approach. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from LINK

[69] Rebecca Campbell, December 2012, The Neurobiology of Sexual Assault, Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. Retrieved December 14, 2016, LINK

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[75] Rebecca Campbell, Emily Dworkin, and Giannina Cabral, 2009, “An Ecological Model of the Impact of Sexual Assault on Women’s Mental Health,” Trauma, Violence, & Abuse10(3): 225 – 246.

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[78] Rachel Jewkes, Ivy Josiah, Fatma Khafagi, Nadine France, and Maria de Bruyn, 2002, “Chapter 6: Sexual Violence,” World Report on Violence and Health.Retrieved December 6, 2016, from LINK

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Molly L. Paras, Mohammad Hassan Murad, Laura P. Chen, Erin N. Goranson, Amelia L. Sattler, Kristina M. Colbenson, Mohamed B. Elamin, Richard J. Seime, Larry J. Prokop, and Ali Zirakzadeh, 2009, “Sexual Abuse and Lifetime Diagnosis of Somatic Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis,” The Journal of the American Medical Association302(5): 550 –561.

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[79] Callie Marie Rennison, August 2002, Rape and Sexual Assault: Reporting to Police and Medical Attention, 1992-2000, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved November 18, 2016, from LINK

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[81] Jonathan A. Gottschall and Tiffani A. Gottschall, 2003, “Are Per-Incident Rape-Pregnancy Rates Higher Than Per-Incident Consensual Pregnancy Rates?” Human Nature14(1):1 –20.

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[83] Rebecca M. Loya, 2015, “Rape as an Economic Crime: The Impact of Sexual Violence on Survivors’ Employment and Economic Well-Being,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence30(16): 2793 –2813.

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[85] Randall Waechter and Van Ma, 2015, “Sexual Violence in America: Public Funding and Social Priority,” American Journal of Public Health105(12): 2430 – 2437.

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[119] Cora Peterson, Sarah DeGue, Curtis Florence, and Colby N. Lokey, 2017, “Lifetime Economic Burden of Rape Among U.S. Adults,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine52(6): 691–701. Retrieved June 22, 2017, from LINK

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Topic Sexual Assault Response Teams