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Section 7: SARTs and Offender Accountability


[1] Kathryn England Aytes, Sam S. Olsen, Todd Zakrajsek, Paul Murray, and Randall Ireson, 2001, “Cognitive/Behavioral Treatment for Sexual Offenders: An Examination of Recidivism,” Sexual Abuse 13(4): 223–231.

Kerry Lowden, Nicole Hetz, Linda Harrison, Diane Patrick, Kim English, and Diane Pasini-Hill, 2003, Evaluation of Colorado's Prison Therapeutic Community for Sex Offenders: A Report of Findings, Denver, CO: Colorado Division of Criminal Justice, Office of Research and Statistics. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[2] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d., The History of Violence as a Public Health Issue. Retrieved June 30, 2017, from LINK

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d., Sexual Violence. Retrieved June 30, 2017, from LINK

[3] National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, 2012, Map of Registered Sex Offenders in the United States. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from LINK

[4] Monica Applewhite, n.d., Sexual Offender Registries and Communities of Faith. Retrieved January 17, 2017, from LINK

[5] The National Parole Resource Center, 2014, Resource Package for Paroling Authorities on Sex Offenders. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[6] Center for Sex Offender Management, National Sexual Violence Resource Center, Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, and Resource Sharing Project, 2016, Promoting Collaboration Between Victim Advocates and Sex Offender Management Professionals: A Resource Package. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[7] State of Connecticut, Department of Corrections, Office of the Commissioner, March 23, 2016, Testimony of Frank Mirto, Parole Supervisor. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from LINK

[8] State of Connecticut, Department of Corrections, Office of the Commissioner, March 23, 2016, Testimony of Frank Mirto, Parole Supervisor. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from LINK

[9] Jane Wiseman, 2014, Chapter 1: Incidence and Prevalence of Sexual Offending, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative Report, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved June 30, 2017, from LINK

[10] Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2014, Crime in the United States, 2013. Clarksburg, WV: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services Division. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

Karen G. Weiss, 2010, “Male Sexual Victimization: Examining Men’s Experiences of Rape and Sexual Assault,” Men and Masculinities 12(3): 275–298.

[11] Michele C. Black, Kathleen C. Basile, Matthew J. Breiding, Sharon G. Smith, Mikel L. Walters, Melissa T. Merrick, Jieru Chen, and Mark R. Stevens, 2011, The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Summary Report, Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[12] Howard N. Snyder, 2000, Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[13] Michele C. Black, Kathleen C. Basile, Matthew J. Breiding, Sharon G. Smith, Mikel L. Walters, Melissa T. Merrick, Jieru Chen, and Mark R. Stevens, 2011, The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Summary Report, Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[14] Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2014, Crime in the United States, 2013. Clarksburg, WV: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services Division. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[15] David Finkelhor, Richard Ormrod, and Mark Chaffin, December 2009, “Juveniles Who Commit Sex Offenses Against Minors,” Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[16] David Lisak and Paul Miller, 2002, “Repeat Rape and Multiple Offending Among Undetected Rapists,” Violence and Victims 17(1): 73–84.

Kevin Swartout, Mary Koss, Jacquelyn White, Martie Thompson, Antonia Abbey, and Alexandra Bellis, 2015, “A Trajectory Analysis of the Campus Serial Rapist Assumption,” JAMA Pediatrics 169(12): 1148–1154.

[17] Antonia Abbey, Pam McAuslan, and Lisa Thomson Ross, 1998, “Sexual Assault Perpetration by College Men: The Role of Alcohol, Misperception of Sexual Intent, and Sexual Beliefs and Experiences,” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 12(2): 167–195.

Mary P. Koss, Christine A. Gidycz, and Nadine Wisniewski, 1987, “The Scope of Rape: Incidence and Prevalence of Sexual Aggression and Victimization in a National Sample of Higher Education Students,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55(2): 162–170.

David Lisak and Paul M. Miller, 2002, “Repeat Rape and Multiple Offending Among Undetected Rapists,” Violence and Victims 17(1): 73–84.

Jeremy F. Mills, 1997, “The Criminal Sentiments Scale: Predictive Validity in a Sample of Violent and Sex Offenders,” Journal of Clinical Psychology 53(4): 399–404.

Catherine Loh, Christine A. Gidycz, Tracy R. Lobo, and Rohini Luthra, 2005, “A Prospective Analysis of Sexual Assault Perpetration Risk Factors Related to Perpetration Characteristics,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 20(10): 1325–1348.

Heather Strang, Lawrence W. Sherman, Evan Mayo-Wilson, Daniel Woods, and Barak Ariel, 2013, “Restorative Justice Conferencing (RJC) Using Face-to-Face Meetings of Offenders and Victims: Effects on Offender Recidivism and Victim Satisfaction,” Campbell Systematic Reviews 2013: 9. Retrieved July 20, 2017, from LINK

Jacquelyn White and Paige Hall Smith, 2004, “Sexual Assault Perpetration and Reperpetration: From Adolescents to Adulthood, “ Criminal Justice and Behavior 31(2): 182-202.

[18] Karen S. Calhoun, Jeffrey A. Bernat, Gretchen A. Clum, and Cynthia L. Frame, 1997, “Sexual Coercion and Attraction to Sexual Aggression in a Community Sample of Young Men,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 12(3): 392–406.

Charlene Y. Senn, Serge Desmarais, Norine Verberg, and Eileen Wood, 2000, “Predicting Coercive Sexual Behavior Across the Lifespan in a Random Sample of Canadian Men,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 17(1): 95–113.

Antonia Abbey, Pam McAuslan, and Lisa Thomson Ross, 1998, “Sexual Assault Perpetration by College Men: The Role of Alcohol, Misperception of Sexual Intent, and Sexual Beliefs and Experiences,” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 12(2): 167–195.

[19] Karen S. Calhoun, Jeffrey A. Bernat, Gretchen A. Clum, and Cynthia L. Frame, 1997, “Sexual Coercion and Attraction to Sexual Aggression in a Community Sample of Young Men,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 12(3): 392–406.

Charlene Y. Senn, Serge Desmarais, Norine Verberg, and Eileen Wood, 2000, “Predicting Coercive Sexual Behavior Across the Lifespan in a Random Sample of Canadian Men,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 17(1): 95–113.

Antonia Abbey, Pam McAuslan, and Lisa Thomson Ross, 1998, “Sexual Assault Perpetration by College Men: The Role of Alcohol, Misperception of Sexual Intent, and Sexual Beliefs and Experiences,” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 12(2): 167–195.

[20] David Lisak and Paul M. Miller, 2002, “Repeat Rape and Multiple Offending Among Undetected Rapists,” Violence and Victims 17(1): 73–84.

Stephanie K. McWhorter, Valerie A. Stander, Lex L. Merrill, Cynthia J. Thomsen, and Joel S. Milner, 2009, “Reports of Rape Reperpetration by Newly Enlisted Male Navy Personnel,” Violence and Victims 24(2): 209–224.

Antonia Abbey, Pam McAuslan, and Lisa Thomson Ross, 1998, “Sexual Assault Perpetration by College Men: The Role of Alcohol, Misperception of Sexual Intent, and Sexual Beliefs and Experiences,” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 12(2): 167-195.

[21] Kevin M. Swartout, Mary P. Koss, Jacquelyn W. White, Martie P. Thompson, Antonia Abbey, and Alexandra L. Bellis, 2015, “Trajectory Analysis of the Campus Serial Rapist Assumption,” JAMA Pediatrics 169(12): 1148–1154.

[22] Susan Faupel, 2014, Chapter 2: Etiology of Adult Sexual Offending, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved December 21, 2017, from: LINK

[23] Susan Faupel, 2014, Chapter 2: Etiology of Adult Sexual Offending, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved December 22, 2017, from: LINK

[24] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016, Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). Retrieved December 22, 2017, from LINK

[25] Andra Teten Tharp, Sarah DeGue, Linda Anne Valle, Kathryn A. Brookmeyer, Greta M. Massetti, and Jennifer L. Matjasko, 2012, “A Systematic Qualitative Review of Risk and Protective Factors for Sexual Violence Perpetration,” Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 14(2): 133–167.

[26] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017, Sexual Violence: Risk and Protective Factors. Retrieved July 20, 2017, from LINK

[27] Michiel de Vries Robbe, Ruth E. Mann, Shadd Maruna, and David Thornton, 2015, “An Exploration of Protective Factors Supporting Desistance from Sexual Offending,” Sexual Abuse 27(1): 16–33.

[28] Dominique Simons. 2014, Chapter 3: Sex Offender Typologies of Adult Sexual Offending, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[29] Dominique Simons. 2014, Chapter 3: Sex Offender Typologies of Adult Sexual Offending, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[30] Dominique Simons. 2014, Chapter 3: Sex Offender Typologies of Adult Sexual Offending, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[31] Dominique Simons. 2014, Chapter 3: Sex Offender Typologies of Adult Sexual Offending, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[32] Michael Seto. 2014. Chapter 4: Internet-Facilitated Sexual Offending, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK.

[33] Michael C. Seto, R. Karl Hanson, and Kelly M. Babchishin, 2011, “Contact Sexual Offending by Men with Online Sexual Offenses,” Sexual Abuse 23(1): 124–145.

[34] Dominique Simons. 2014, Chapter 3: Sex Offender Typologies of Adult Sexual Offending, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[35] R. Karl Hanson and Kelly Morton-Bourgon, 2004, Predictors of Sexual Recidivism: An Updated Meta-Analysis. Ottawa, ON: Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

Martin Schmucker and Friedrich Lösel, 2015, “The Effects of Sexual Offender Treatment on Recidivism: An International Analysis of Sound Quality Evaluations,” Journal of Experimental Criminology 11(4): 597-630.

[36] Philip Firestone, Drew A. Kingston, Audrey Wexler, and John M. W. Bradford, 2006, “Long-Term Follow-Up of Exhibitionists: Psychological, Phallometric, and Offense Characteristics,” Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 34(3): 349–59.

Philip Sugarman, Catherine Dumughn, Karim Saad, Stephen Hinder, and Robert Bluglass, 1994, “Dangerousness in Exhibitionists,” Journal of Forensic Psychiatry 5(2): 287–296.

[37] Franca Cortoni and R. Karl Hanson, 2005, A Review of the Recidivism Rates of Adult Female Sexual Offenders (Research Report 2005 No. R-169), Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service of Canada, Research Branch. Retrieved July 20, 2017, from LINK

Franca Cortoni, R., Karl Hanson, and Marie-Eve Coache, 2010, “The recidivism rates of female sex offenders are low: A meta-analysis,” Sexual Abuse 22(4): 387–401.

[38] Michael F. Caldwell, 2016, “Quantifying the Decline in Juvenile Sexual Recidivism Rates,” Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 22(4): 414–426.

Lorraine R. Reitzel and Joyce L. Carbonell, 2006, “The Effectiveness of Sexual Offender Treatment for Juveniles as Measured by Recidivism: A Meta-Analysis,” Sexual Abuse 18(4): 401–421.

[39] Michael F. Caldwell, 2016, “Quantifying the Decline in Juvenile Sexual Recidivism Rates,” Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 22(4): 414–

426.

[40] Lorraine R. Reitzel and Joyce L. Carbonell, 2006, “The Effectiveness of Sexual Offender Treatment for Juveniles as Measured by Recidivism: A Meta-Analysis,” Sexual Abuse 18(4): 401–421.

[41] Tom Leversee, 2014, Chapter 2: Etiology and Typologies of Juveniles Who Have Committed Sexual Offenses, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative (Section 2), Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved July 20, 2017, from LINK

[42] Melissa Y. Carpentier, Jane F. Silovsky, and Mark Chaffin, 2006, “Randomized Trial of Treatment for Children With Sexual Behavior Problems: Ten-Year Follow-Up,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74(3): 482–488.

[43] Kevin Baldwin, 2014, Chapter 6: Sex Offender Risk Assessment, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved July 20, 2017, from LINK

[44] Claudi E. van der Put and Jessica J. Asscher, 2015, “Protective Factors in Male Adolescents with a History of Sexual and/or Violent Offending: A Comparison Between Three Subgroups,” Sexual Abuse 27(1): 109–126.

[45] James Bonta and D. A. Andrews, 2017, The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, 6th ed. New York, NY: Routledge.

[46] James Bonta and D. A. Andrews, 2017, The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, 6th ed. New York, NY: Routledge

[47] James Bonta and D. A. Andrews, 2017, The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, 6th ed. New York, NY: Routledge.

R. Karl Hanson, Guy Bourgon, Leslie Maaike Helmus, and Shannon Hodgson, 2009, A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Treatment for Sex Offenders: Risk, Need, and Responsivity, Ottawa, ON: Public Safety Canada. Retrieved July 20, 2017, from LINK

[48] R. Karl Hanson, Guy Bourgon, Leslie Maaike Helmus, and Shannon Hodgson, 2009, A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Treatment for Sex Offenders: Risk Need, and Responsivity. Ottawa, ON: Public Safety Canada.

Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

Martin Schmucker and Friedrich Lösel, 2015, “The Effects of Sexual Offender Treatment on Recidivism: An International Analysis of Sound Quality Evaluations,” Journal of Experimental Criminology 11(4): 597–630.

Lorraine R. Reitzel and Joyce L. Carbonell, 2006, “The Effectiveness of Sexual Offender Treatment for Juveniles as Measured by Recidivism: A Meta-Analysis,” Sexual Abuse 18(4), 401–421.

[49] Roger Przybylski, 2014, Chapter 7: Effectiveness of Treatment for Adult Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[50] Elizabeth J. Letourneau, Scott W. Henggeler, Charles M. Borduin, Paul A. Schewe, Michael R. McCart, Jason E. Chapman, and Lisa Saldana, 2009, “Multisystemic therapy for juvenile sexual offenders: 1-year results from a randomized effectiveness trial,” Journal of Family Psychology 23(1), 89–102.

Lorraine R. Reitzel and Joyce L. Carbonell, 2006, “The effectiveness of sexual offender treatment for juveniles as measured by recidivism: A meta-analysis,” Sexual Abuse 18(4): 401–421.

[51] David Finkelhor, Richard Ormrod, and Mark Chaffin, December 2009, “Juveniles Who Commit Sex Offenses Against Minors,” Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

James R. Worling and Calvin M. Langton, 2015, “A Prospective Investigation of Factors That Predict Desistance from Recidivism for Adolescents Who Have Sexually Offended,” Sexual Abuse 27(1): 127–142.

[52] Melissa Y. Carpentier, Jane F. Silovsky, and Mark Chaffin, 2006, “Randomized Trial of Treatment for Children With Sexual Behavior Problems: Ten-Year Follow-Up,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74(3): 482–488.

[53] Washington State Department of Corrections, n.d., “Sex Offender Treatment and Assessment,” Retrieved, June 28, 2017, from LINK

[54] Roger Przybylski, 2014, Chapter 7: Effectiveness of Treatment for Adult Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[55] U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking, n.d., Legislative History. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[56] Andrew J. Harris, Christopher Lobanov-Rostovsky, and Jill S. Levenson, 2016, Law Enforcement Perspectives on Sex Offender Registration & Notification. Retrieved July 20, 2017, from LINK

[57] Elizabeth Letourneau, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay, Kevin Armstrong, and Debajyoti Sinha, 2010, "Do Sex Offender Registration and Notification Requirements Deter Juvenile Sex Crimes?" Criminal Justice and Behavior 37(5): 553–569.

[58] Michelle L. Meloy, Susan L. Miller, and Kristin M. Curtis, 2008, “Making Sense Out of Nonsense: The Deconstruction of State-Level Sex Offender Residence Restrictions,” American Journal of Criminal Justice 33(2): 209–222.

[59] Beth Huebner, Timothy Bynum, Jason Rydberg, Kimberly Kras, Eric Grommon, and Breanne Pleggenkuhle, 2013, An Evaluation of Sex Offender Residency Restrictions in Michigan and Missouri. Retrieved June 27, 2017, from LINK

Grant Duwe, Willian Donnay, and Richard Tewksbury, 2008, "Does Residential Proximity Matter? A Geographic Analysis of Sex Offense Recidivism," Criminal Justice and Behavior 35(4): 484–504.

[60] Christopher Lobanov-Rostovsky, 2014, Chapter 8: Sex Offender Management Strategies, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[61] Christopher Lobanov-Rostovsky, 2014, Chapter 8: Sex Offender Management Strategies, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[62] Christopher Lobanov-Rostovsky, 2014, Chapter 8: Sex Offender Management Strategies, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[63] Christopher Lobanov-Rostovsky, 2014, Chapter 8: Sex Offender Management Strategies, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[64] Christopher Lobanov-Rostovsky, 2014, Chapter 8: Sex Offender Management Strategies, Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[65] Susan Turner, Jesse Jannetta, James Hess, Randy Myers, Rita Shah, Robert Werth, and Alyssa Whitby, 2007, Implementation and Early Outcomes For the San Diego High Risk Sex Offender (HRSO) GPS Pilot Program, Irvine, CA: Center for Evidence-Based Corrections. Retrieved June 28, 2017, from LINK

[66] Michael Bourke, Lance Fragomeli, Paul Detar, Michael Sullivan, Edward Meyle, and Mark O'Riordan, 2015, "The Use of Tactical Polygraph with Sex Offenders," Journal of Sexual Aggression 21(3): 354–367.

Elizabeth Elliott and Birgit Vollm, 2016, “The Utility of Post-Conviction Polygraph Testing Among Sexual Offenders,” Sexual Abuse 30(4): 367-392

[67] Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, 2017, Practice Guidelines for Assessment, Treatment, and Intervention with Adolescents Who Have Engaged in Sexual Abuse. Retrieved, June 28, 2017, from LINK