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Section 5: Sexual Assault Response


[1] Jessica Bateman, 2017, “Meet the Women Using Tech to Combat Sexual Assault,” The Guardian. Retrieved June 11, 2017, from LINK

[2] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations: Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from LINK

[3] Bette Bottoms, Liana Peter-Hagene, Michelle Epstein, Tisha Wiley, Carrie Reynolds, and Aaron Rudnicki, 2016, “Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 31(7): 1308-1339.

Judy Postmus, 2015, “Women from Different Ethnic Groups and Their Experiences with Victimization and Seeking Help,” Violence Against Women 21(3): 376-393.

[4] Iva Bicanic, Lieve Hehenkamp, Elise van de Putte, Arjen van Wijk, and Ad de Jongh, 2015, “Predictors of Delayed Disclosure of Rape in Female Adolescents and Young Adults,” European Journal of Psychotraumatology 6(1): 25883. Retrieved June 2, 2017, from LINK

[5] Federal Communications Commission, n.d., What You Need to Know About Text-to-911. Retrieved June 23, 2017, from LINK

[6] Office of Chief Lee W. Russo, West Valley City Police, April 13, 2016, Groundbreaking WVCPD Sexual Assault Protocol Drastically Increases Prosecution Rates. Retrieved July 1, 2017, from LINK

[7] The International Association of Chiefs of Police, n.d., IACP Sexual Assault Incident Reports. Retrieved May 4, 2018, from LINK

[8] Jessica Shaw, 2014, Justifying Injustice: How the Criminal Justice System Explains Its Response to Sexual Assault. Retrieved June 19, 2017, from LINK

[9] Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime Training and Technical Assistance Center, n.d., “Trauma-Informed Victim Interviewing,” Human Trafficking Task Force e-Guide. Retrieved April 11, 2018, from LINK

[10] Office for Victims of Crime, n.d., “Glossary,” Achieving Excellence: Model Standards for Serving Victims and Survivors of Crime. Retrieved April 11, 2018, from LINK

[11] International Association of Chiefs of Police, n.d., Trauma-Informed Sexual Assault Investigation: Interviewing. Retrieved April 11, 2018, from LINK

[12] Jeffrey A. Boulffard, 2000, “Predicting Type of Sexual Assault Case Closure, from Victim, Suspect, and Case Characteristics,” Journal of Criminal Justice 28(6): 527-542.

[13] U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, March 2011, Investigation of the New Orleans Police Department. Retrieved June 30, 2017, from LINK

[14] Kimberly A. Lonsway, Susan Welch, and Louise F. Fitzgerald, 2001, “Police Training in Sexual Assault Response: Process, Outcomes, and Elements of Change,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 28(6): 695-730.

[15] Jo Johnson, July 26, 2017, APPS & Sexual Assault Response and Prevention, Presentation at Colorado Coalition against Sexual Assault Campus Meeting, Denver, CO.

[16] National Network to End Domestic Violence, Technology Safety, n.d., App Safety Center. Retrieved June 27, 2017, from LINK

[17] National Forensic Science Technology Center, n.d., A Simplified Guide to Digital Evidence. Retrieved June 18, 2016, from LINK

[18] National Network to End Domestic Violence, Technology Safety, 2014, Assessing for Technology Abuse and Privacy Concerns. Retrieved July 21, 2017, from LINK

[19] National Network to End Domestic Violence, Technology SAfety, 2014, Images, Consent, and Abuse. Retrieved July 21, 2017, from LINK

[20] National Network to End Domestic Violence, Safety Net Project, 2014, Documentation Tips for Survivors of Technology Abuse and Stalking. Retrieved July 21, 2017, from LINK

[21] Kaofeng Lee and Ian Harris, n.d., How to Gather Technology Abuse Evidence for Court. Retrieved March 15, 2018, from LINK

[22] Washington Coalition of Sexual Assault Programs, n.d., Intimate Partner Sexual Violence. Retrieved May 3, 2017, from LINK

[23] Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network, n.d., Intimate Partner Sexual Violence. Retrieved May 23, 2017, from LINK

[24] Matthew Breiding, Jieru Chen, and Michele Black, 2014, Intimate Partner Violence in the United States - 2010, Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved June 12, 2017, from LINK

[25] Laura Spiller, Ernest Jouriles, Renee McDonald, and Nancy Skopp, 2012, "Physically Abused Women's Experiences of Sexual Victimization and Their Children's Disruptive Behavior Problems," Psychology of Violence 2(4): 401-410.

[26] Jeffrey Hall, Mikel Walters, and Kathleen Basile, 2012, "Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions Among Subtypes of Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking," Journal of Interpersonal Violence 27(7): 1374-1395.

[27] Katie Edwards, Kateryna Sylaska, and Angela Neal, 2015, "Intimate Partner Violence Among Sexual Minority Populations: A Critical Review of the Literature and Agenda for Future Research," Psychology of Violence 5(2): 112-121.

[28] Matthew Breiding, Jieru Chen, and Michele Black, 2014, Intimate Partner Violence in the United States - 2010, Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved June 12, 2017, from LINK

[29] John Williams, Leo Wilton, Manya Magnus, Lei Want, Jing Wang, Typhanye Penniman, Beryl Koblin, Christopher Hucks-Ortiz, Sheldon Fields, Steve Shoptaw, Rob Stephenson, Conall O'Cleirigh, and Vanessa Cummings, 2015, "Relation of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Depression to Risk Factors for HIV Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in 7 U.S. Cities," American Journal of Public Health 105(12): 2473-2481.

[30] Michele C. Black, Kathleen C. Basile, Matthew J. Breiding, Sharon G. Smith, Mikel L. Walters, Melissa T. Merrick, Jieru Chen, and Mark R. Stevens, 2011, The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Summary Report. Retrieved May 4, 2017, from LINK

[31] Michele C. Black, Kathleen C. Basile, Matthew J. Breiding, Sharon G. Smith, Mikel L. Walters, Melissa T. Merrick, Jieru Chen, and Mark R. Stevens, 2011, The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Summary Report. Retrieved May 4, 2017, from

LINK

[32] Jenifer Markowitz and Jennifer Long, 2012, Intimate Partner Sexual Assault [webinar]. Retrieved May 24, 2017, from LINK

[33] The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2013, Reproductive and Sexual Coercion. Retrieved May 4, 2017, from LINK

[34] Linda Chamberlain and Rebecca Levenson, 2012, Addressing: Intimate Partner Violence, Reproductive and Sexual Coercion: A Guide for Obstetric, Gynecologic and Reproductive Health Care Settings. Retrieved May 23, 2017, from LINK

[35] Washington Coalition of Sexual Assault Programs, n.d., Pregnant and Parenting Survivors. Retrieved May 4, 2017, from LINK

[36] Lindsay E. Clark, Rebecca H. Allen, Vinita Goyal, Christina Raker, and Amy S. Gottlieb, 2014, Reproductive Coercion and Co-Occurring Intimate Partner Violence in Obstetrics and Gynecology Patients. Retrieved May 4, 2017, from LINK

[37] American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists, 2013, Reproductive and Sexual Coercion. Retrieved May 24, 2017, from LINK

[38] Linda Chamberlain and Rebecca Levenson, 2012, Addressing: Intimate Partner Violence, Reproductive and Sexual Coercion: A Guide for Obstetric, Gynecologic and Reproductive Health Care Settings. Retrieved May 23, 2017, from LINK

[39] Jenifer Markowitz and Jennifer Long, 2012, Intimate Partner Sexual Assault [webinar]. Retrieved May 24, 2017, from LINK

[40] Jenifer Markowitz and Jennifer Long, 2012, Intimate Partner Sexual Assault [webinar]. Retrieved May 24, 2017, from LINK

[41] Jennifer Long, Charlene Whitman-Barr, and Viktoria Kristiansson, 2016, Alcohol-and Drug- Facilitated Sexual Assault: A Survey of the Law, Washington, DC: AEquitas. Retrieved March 8, 2017, from LINK

[42] World Health Organization, 2003, Guidelines for Medico-Legal Care for Victims of Sexual Violence. Retrieved March 8, 2017, from LINK

[43] Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network, n.d., Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault. Retrieved November 9, 2016, from LINK

[44] Mark Relyea and Sarah Ullman, 2015, "Measuring Social Reactions to Female Survivors of Alcohol-Involved Sexual Assault: The Social Reactions Questionnaire-Alcohol,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30(11): 1864-1887.

[45] Rhiana Wegner, and Kelly Cue Davis, 2017, “How Men’s Sexual Assault Victimization Experiences Differ Based on Their Sexual History.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Advanced online publication.

[46] Amy Cohn, Heidi Zinzow, Heidi Resnick, and Dean Kilpatrick, 2013, "Correlates of Reasons for Not Reporting Rape to Police: Results from a National Telephone Household Probability Sample of Women with Forcible or Drug-or-Alcohol Facilitated/Incapacitated Rape." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 28(3): 455-473.

[48] Matthew J. Breiding, Sharon G. Smith, Kathleen C. Basile, Mikel L. Walters, Jieru Chen, and Melissa T. Merrick, September 5, 2014, “Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Violence, Stalking, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization – National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 63(SS08): 1. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from LINK

[49] Dean G. Kilpatrick, Heidi S. Resnick, Kenneth J. Ruggiero, Lauren M. Consocenti, and Jenna McCauley, 2007, Drug-Facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape: A National Study. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from LINK

Kate Walsh, Heidi Zinzow, Christal Badour, Kenneth Ruggiero, Dean Kilpatrick, and Heidi Resnick, 2016, “Understanding Disparities in Service Seeking Following Forcible Versus Drug-or-Alcohol-Facilitated/Incapacitated Rape,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 31(14): 2475-2491.

[50] U.S. Department of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from LINK

[51] AIT Laboratories, 2015, Forensic Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Panel, Blood. Retrieved May 25, 2017, from LINK

AIT Laboratories, 2016, Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault. Retrieved May 25, 2017, from LINK

[52] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2011, Guidelines for the Forensic Analysis of Drugs Facilitating Sexual Assault and Other Criminal Acts. Retrieved May 25, 2017, from LINK

[53] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations: Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from LINK

[54] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2011, Guidelines for the Forensic Analysis of Drugs Facilitating Sexual Assault and Other Criminal Acts. Retrieved May 25, 2017, from LINK

[55] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations: Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from LINK

[56] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations: Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from LINK

[57] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations: Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from LINK

[58] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations: Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from LINK

[59] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations: Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from LINK

[60] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations: Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition, 107. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from LINK

[61] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations: Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from LINK

[62] Teresa P. Scalzo, 2007, Prosecuting Alcohol-Facilitated Sexual Assault, Alexandria, VA: National District Attorneys Association, American Prosecutors Research Institute. Retrieved May 26, 2017, from LINK

[63] Kathryn Graham, Sharon Bernards, D. Wayne Osgood, Antonia Abbey, Michael Parks, Andrea Flynn, Tara Dumas, and Samantha Wells, 2014, “‘Blurred Lines?’ Sexual Aggression and Barroom Culture,” Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 38(5): 1416-1424. Retrieved June 23, 2017, from LINK

[64] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations: Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition. Retrieved March 10, 2017, from LINK

[65] U.S. Department of Defense, 2015, Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program Procedures. Retrieved March 13, 2017, from LINK

[66] Kathryn Graham, Sharon Bernards, D. Wayne Osgood, Antonia Abbey, Michael Parks, Andrea Flynn, Tara Dumas, and Samantha Wells, 2014, “‘Blurred Lines?’ Sexual Aggression and Barroom Culture,” Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 38(5): 1416-1424. Retrieved June 23, 2017, from LINK

[67] International Association of Police, January 2017, Deliberations from the IACP National Forum on Body-Worn Cameras and Violence Against Women. Retrieved May 5, 2017, from LINK

[68] International Association of Police, January 2017, Deliberations from the IACP National Forum on Body-Worn Cameras and Violence Against Women. Retrieved May 5, 2017, from LINK

[69] Vivian Hung, Steven Babin, and Jacqueline Coberly, 2016, A Primer on Body Worn Camera Technologies, Laurel, MD: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Retrieved March 13, 2017, from LINK

[70] International Association of Police, January 2017, Deliberations from the IACP National Forum on Body-Worn Cameras and Violence Against Women. Retrieved May 5, 2017, from LINK

[71] International Association of Police, January 2017, Deliberations from the IACP National Forum on Body-Worn Cameras and Violence Against Women. Retrieved May 5, 2017, from LINK

[72] International Association of Police, January 2017, Deliberations from the IACP National Forum on Body-Worn Cameras and Violence Against Women. Retrieved May 5, 2017, from LINK

[73] International Association of Police, January 2017, Deliberations from the IACP National Forum on Body-Worn Cameras and Violence Against Women. Retrieved May 5, 2017, from LINK

[74] U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from LINK

[75] Patricia Fanflik, 2007, Victim Responses to Sexual Assault: Counterintuitive or Simply Adaptive? Alexandria, VA: National District Attorneys Association. Retrieved March 13, 2017, from LINK

[76] International Association of Police, January 2017, Deliberations from the IACP National Forum on Body-Worn Cameras and Violence Against Women. Retrieved May 5, 2017, from LINK

[77] International Association of Police, January 2017, Deliberations from the IACP National Forum on Body-Worn Cameras and Violence Against Women. Retrieved May 5, 2017, from LINK

[78] Matthew Crow, Jamie Snyder, Vaughn Crichlow, and John Ortiz Smykla, 2017, "Community Perceptions of Police-Worn Cameras: The Impact of Views on Fairness, Fear, Performance, and Privacy,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 44(4): 589-610.

[79] William Sousa, Terance Miethe, and Mari Sakiyama, 2015, Body Worn Cameras on Police: Results from a National Survey of Public Attitudes, Las Vegas, NV: University of Nevada, Las Vegas Center for Crime and Justice Policy. Retrieved March 13, 2017, from LINK

[80] Weston J. Morrow, Charles M. Katz, and David Choate, 2016, "Assessing the Impact of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Arresting, Prosecuting, and Convicting Suspects of Intimate Partner Violence," Police Quarterly 19(3), 303-325.

[81] Vivian Hung, Steven Babin, and Jacqueline Coberly, 2016, A Primer on Body Worn Camera Technologies, Laurel, MD: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Retrieved March 13, 2017, from LINK

[82] Vivian Hung, Steven Babin, and Jacqueline Coberly, 2016, A Primer on Body Worn Camera Technologies, Laurel, MD: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Retrieved March 13, 2017, from LINK

[83]Sandra Tibbetts Murphy, n.d., Police Body Cameras in Domestic and Sexual Assault Investigations: Considerations and Unanswered Questions, Minneapolis MN: Battered Women’s Justice Project. Retrieved June 18, 2017, from LINK

[84] Jacquelyn Campbell, 2005, “Commentary on Websdale: Lethality Assessment Approaches: Reflections on Their Use and Ways Forward,” Violence Against Women 11(9): 1206-1213. Retrieved May 3, 2017, from LINK

[85] Barbara Hart, 2004, Safety for Women: Monitoring Batterers’ Programs, Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence. Retrieved May 3, 2017, from LINK

[86] Jacquelyn C. Campbell, 2003, Danger Assessment. Retrieved July 21, 2017, from LINK

[87] Dave Sargent, 2009, Maryland’s Lethality Assessment Program: From Research into Practice. Minneapolis, MN: Battered Women’s Justice Project. Retrieved May 23, 2017, from LINK

[88] Dave Sargent, 2009, Maryland’s Lethality Assessment Program: From Research into Practice. Minneapolis, MN: Battered Women’s Justice Project. Retrieved May 23, 2017, from LINK

[89]Jacquelyn C. Campbell, Daniel Webster, Jane Koziol-McLain, Carolyn Rebecca Block, Doris Campbell, Mary Ann Curry, Faye Gary, Judith McFarlane, Carolyn Sachs, Phyllis Sharps, Yvonne Ulrich, and Susan A. Wilt, 2003, “Assessing Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide,” NIJ Journal 250. Retrieved May 3, 2017, from LINK

[90] Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services, 2013, Review of Lethality Assessment Programs. Retrieved May 23, 2017, from LINK

[91] Allison Turkel, 2008, “‘’And Then He Choked Me’: Understanding, Investigating, and Prosecuting Strangulation Cases”, The Voice 2(1): 1-4, Arlington, VA: National District Attorneys Association. Retrieved May 25, 2017, from LINK

[92] Jennifer Pierce-Weeks and Kim Day, 2012, The Medical-Forensic Evaluation of Strangulation, West Hollywood, CA: The Tribal Law and Policy Institute. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from LINK

[93] Dean Hawley and Candace Heisler, 2012, Strangulation and Suffocation, Presentation at the NAPSA Conference, Washington, DC: National Adult Protection Services Association, 19. Retrieved June 8, 2017, from LINK

[94] Melissa Jeltsen, October 9, 2015, “A Legal Loophole May Have Cost This Woman Her Life,” Huffington Post. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from LINK

[95] Rachel Louise Snyder, December 30, 2015, “No Visible Bruises: Domestic Violence and Traumatic Brain Injury,” The New Yorker. Retrieved November 23, 2016, from LINK

[96] Jennifer Pierce-Weeks and Megan Lechner, 2015, “Strangulation in the Living IPV Patient,” In Violence Against Women: Contemporary Examination of Intimate Partner Violence, Saint Louis, MO: STM Learning, Inc., 277–91.

[97] Training Institute on Strangulation Prevention, n.d., Strangulation: What We Have Learned [DVD]. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from LINK

[98] U.S. Department of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from LINK

[99] Rape Exam Payments - 42 U.S.C. §3796gg-4(d)(1) (2005). Retrieved June 19, 2017, from LINK

[100] U.S. Department of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from LINK

[101] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition. Retrieved March 3, 2017, from LINK

[102] Ending Violence Against Women International, n.d., Background on VAWA 2005, VAWA 2013 and Forensic Compliance. Retrieved June 15, 2017, from LINK

[103] International Association of Forensic Nurses, 2011, Payment for the Examination Under VAWA. Retrieved July 21, 2017 from LINK

[104] End Violence Against Women International, n.d., Forensic Compliance Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved July 21, 2017, from LINK

[105] International Association of Forensic Nurses, 2011, Payment for the Examination Under VAWA. Retrieved July 21, 2017, from LINK

[106] Teresa P. Scalzo, 2006, Rape and Sexual Assault Reporting Requirements for Competent Adult Victims, Alexandria, VA: National Center for the Prosecution of Violence Against Women. Retrieved July 21, 2017, from LINK

[107] National District Attorney Association, National Center for Prosecution of Violence Against Women, 2016, Reporting Requirements Related to Rape of Competent Adult Victims. Retrieved July 21, 2017, from LINK

[108] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 23, 95, 107. Retrieved March 3, 2017, from LINK,

[109] Ole Ingemann-Hansen and Anne Vesterby Charles, 2013, “Forensic medical examination of adolescent and adult victims of sexual assault,” Best Practice and Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology 27(1): 91-102.

[110] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 8. Retrieved July 2, 2017, from LINK

[111] Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015, Sexual Assault and Abuse and STDs. Retrieved July 1, 2017, from LINK

[112] U.S. Department of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from LINK

[113] U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime, n.d., Evidence Collection, SANE Program Development Guide, Retrieved July 1, 2017, from LINK

[114] U.S. Department of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from LINK

[115] National Institute of Justice, 2017, Uniting to Solve Sexual Assault Crimes. Retrieved July 1, 2017, from LINK

[116] Ole Ingemann-Hansen and Anne Vesterby Charles, 2013, “Forensic medical examination of adolescent and adult victims of sexual assault,” Best Practice and Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology 27(1): 91-102.

[117] Judith A. Linden, 2011, “Care of the Adult Patient after Sexual Assault,” The New England Journal of Medicine 365(9): 834-841.

[118] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 83. Retrieved March 3, 2017, from LINK,

[119] National Library of Medicine, Genetics Home Reference, 2017, What is DNA? Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health. Retrieved June 15, 2017, from LINK

[120] U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 14, 2017, from www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/250384.pdf

[121] U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from LINK

[122] U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2017, Forensic DNA. Retrieved June 15, 2017, from LINK

[123] Federal Bureau of Investigation, n.d., DNA Index System (CODIS). Retrieved July 1, 2017, from LINK

[124] National Center for Victims of Crime, n.d., Sexual Assault Kit Testing: What Victims Need to Know, Washington, DC: National Center for Victims of Crime, 3. Retrieved June 15, 2017, from LINK

National Forensic Science Technology Center, n.d., A Simplified Guide to DNA Evidence. Retrieved June 14, 2017, from LINK

National Center for Victims of Crime, n.d., Frequently Asked Questions for Victim Service Providers about Forensic DNA. Retrieved June 14, 2017, from LINK

[125] Joyful Heart Foundation, n.d., End the Backlog: Detroit. Retrieved June 14, 2017, from LINK

[126] FBI Laboratory Services, n.d., CODIS - NDIS Statistics, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved June 14, 2017, from LINK

[127] Kim Lonsway, Heather Huhtanen, and Joanne Archambault, 2014, The Earthquake in Sexual Assault Response: Implementing VAWA Forensic Compliance, Colville, WA: Ending Violence Against Women International. Retrieved June 15, 2017, from LINK

[128] New Jersey Division of Criminal Justice, 2004, Attorney General Standards for Providing Services to Victims of Sexual Assault (2nd Edition), Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety, Division of Criminal Justice, 7. Retrieved November 11, 2016, from LINK

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[130] National Center for Victims of Crime, n.d., Sexual Assault Kit Testing: What Victims Need to Know, Washington, DC: National Center for Victims of Crime, 4. Retrieved June 15, 2017, from LINK

[131] Jennifer Markowitz and Teresa Scalzo, October 2011, “Understanding Anogenital Injury in Adult Sexual Assault Cases,” Strategies in Brief 5, Washington, DC: AEquitas. Retrieved December 13, 2016, from LINK

[132] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 95. Retrieved March 3, 2017, from LINK

[133] Teresa Magalhaes, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Benedita Silva, Francisco Corte-Real, and Duarte Nuno Vieira, 2015, “Biological Evidence Management for DNA Analysis in Cases of Sexual Assault,” The Scientific World Journal 2015, 365674. Retrieved June 15, 2017, from LINK

[134] U.S. Department of Justice, Institute of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from LINK

[135] U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from LINK

[136] Susan M. Ballou, Margaret C. Kline, Mark D. Stolorow, Melissa K. Taylor, Shannan R. Williams, Phylis S. Bamberger, Burney Yvette, Larry Brown, Cynthia E. Jones, Ralph Keaton, William Kiley, Karen Thiessen, Gerry LaPorte, Joseph Latta, Linda E. Ledray, Randy Nagy, Linda Schwind, Stephanie Stoiloff, and Brian Ostrom, 2013, The Biological Evidence Preservation Handbook: Best Practices for Evidence Handlers. Retrieved July 1, 2017, from LINK

[137] Susan M. Ballou, Margaret C. Kline, Mark D. Stolorow, Melissa K. Taylor, Shannan R. Williams, Phylis S. Bamberger, Burney Yvette, Larry Brown, Cynthia E. Jones, Ralph Keaton, William Kiley, Karen Thiessen, Gerry LaPorte, Joseph Latta, Linda E. Ledray, Randy Nagy, Linda Schwind, Stephanie Stoiloff, and Brian Ostrom, 2013, The Biological Evidence Preservation Handbook: Best Practices for Evidence Handlers. Retrieved July 1, 2017, from LINK

[139] U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from LINK

[140] U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 14, 2017, from LINK

[141] Federal Bureau of Investigation, n.d., Frequently Asked Questions on CODIS and NDIS. Retrieved July 2, 2017, from LINK

[142] U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from LINK

[143] U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from LINK

[144] U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2015, Sexual Assault Kits: Using Science to Find Solutions. Retrieved June 15, 2017, from LINK

[145] U.S. 115th Congress, May 16, 2017, Rapid DNA Act of 2017 (H.R. 510). Retrieved July 2, 2017, from LINK

[146] Federal Bureau of Investigation, n.d., Rapid DNA. Retrieved July 2, 2017, from LINK

[147] U.S. Department of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from LINK

[148] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 43. Retrieved March 3, 2017, from LINK

[149] U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women, 2013, National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations Adults/Adolescents, Second Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 33-35. Retrieved March 3, 2017, from LINK

[150] U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 14, 2017, from LINK

[151] Joyful Heart Foundation, n.d., End the Backlog: Current Practices and Legislation. Retrieved June 14, 2017, from LINK

[152] Rebecca Campbell, Giannina Fehler-Cebral, and Sheena Horsford, 2017, “Creating a Victim Notification Protocol for Untested Sexual Assault Kits: An Empirically Supported Planning Framework,” Journal of Forensic Nursing 13(1): 3-13.

[153] U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2017, National Best Practices for Sexual Assault Kits: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from LINK

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[202] The informal economy consists of work that occurs outside of state control and regulation. Examples of work in the informal economy can include, but are not limited to, babysitting, house cleaning, lawn and yard work, collecting cans, other odd jobs, barter exchanges, street vending/hawking, babysitting. The informal economy also includes black market work such as drug dealing and prostitution. See Demetra Smith Nightingale and Stephen A. Wandner, 2011, “Informal and Nonstandard Employment in the United States,” The Urban Institute Brief 20. Retrieved June 14, 2017, from LINK

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Topic Sexual Assault Response Teams