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Understanding Disability Inclusion and Ableism

Understanding Disability Inclusion and Ableism

According to the CDC, “Disability inclusion means understanding the relationship between the way people function and how they participate in society, and making sure everybody has the same opportunities to participate in every aspect of life to the best of their abilities and desires.” People with disabilities are integral parts of our world and community, yet they often face inaccessible or unwelcoming spaces online. The word disability itself is a limiting term, as it refers to an immense spectrum of experiences. Disabilities can affect a person’s auditory, cognitive, neurological, linguistic, visual, emotional or physical abilities moving through the world, both online and offline. 

According to Ashley Eisenmenger in Ableism 101, “ableism is the discrimination of and social prejudice against people with disabilities based on the belief that typical abilities are superior” or that the average person is without a disability by default. Ableism is the underlying force which creates assumptions that a person by default is non-disabled. Ableism can also contribute to the oversight of not considering whether online spaces are accessible. This is why a stronger awareness of web access (or lack thereof) must be part of our collective consciousness. According to Manish Dudharejia, in 9 Ways to Make Your Website More Accessible, “Web accessibility applies to all disabilities that affect access to the web,” meaning that we need to include much more than just measures for visually or hearing impaired users as we move towards full inclusivity in online spaces. Accessibility measures like alternative text or “alt text” (which provides a description of images) or captioning during video meetings (to provide readable text in real time) have started to become more commonplace, but this is in no way an end point. 

A Disability-Informed Future

Recent reliance on online spaces for school, work, leisure, and social life have highlighted the glaring lack of accessibility which many people face in digital spaces. Although it’s commonly thought that individuals with disabilities are a minority, within the next five years, 20% of the population will identify as having a disability. This translates to over 55 million people — a large portion of the population. Approximately three-quarters of Americans with disabilities report using the internet on a daily basis, all while navigating barriers due to unmindful programing or oversight. At the same time, individuals with disabilities are less likely to own or have access to digital devices. A 2022 research report “people without disabilities were likelier to be aware of, utilize, and perceive the usefulness of digital services during the COVID-19 pandemic including application, information, delivery, and subscription services.” As such, the exclusion of people with disabilities in online spaces only furthers existing inequalities.

Specifically, inaccessibility in online spaces contributes to the already disproportionate rates of unemployment, educational attainment, the lack of supplemental social support, and more. The COVID-19 pandemic has only worsened inequalities not only in regards to health risk, but in regards to access to resources, community, information, and jobs. Elderly populations were significantly over impacted by the intersections between COVID-19 and disability access. According to the UN, “More than 46 per cent of older persons – those aged 60 years and over—have disabilities and more than 250 million older people experience moderate to severe disability.” This raises the issue not only of access to digital devices and online spaces, but barriers in familiarity using them.

The multitude of factors and intersections within experiences with disability must be consulted as we move towards more inclusive spaces online. A disability-informed future requires more awareness, education, and standardized implementation of accessible technologies.


The following materials showcase avenues to expand our awareness of accessibility needs or connect with resources.

Free Online Classes:


Disability and Digital Media: Accessibility, Representation and Inclusion

This class from the EDX University helps participants explore the relationship between digital technologies and disability in the internet age.


End Abuse of People with Disabilities -Training Courses 

Free courses on ‘Working with Faculty to Promote Access”, “Building Accessible Services through Policies and Procedures”, and “Assessing for Physical Access and Safety” are available. 


5 Free Disability Courses Offered Online

For those seeking to learn more about disability rights or working with people with disabilities, these courses offer a great opportunity to deepen your understanding of the issues faced by people with disabilities and how you can work towards securing basic human rights and adequate care for others. 


Introduction to Web Accessibility

Accessibility is essential to create high-quality apps, websites, and other digital content — and to not exclude people from using products and services.This online course provides the foundation you need to make your digital technology accessible, so that it 1) works well for people with disabilities, 2) meets international standards, 3) enhances the user experience for everyone, and 4) achieves goals. 

For Educators:

A Tutorial for Making Online Learning Accessible to Students with Disabilities

Sheryl Burgstahler crafted these instructional materials to provide a path forward in improving existing offerings and designing new ones that ensure that all students can benefit from online educational opportunities


Supporting Students with Disabilities at School and Home: A Guide for Teachers to Support Families and Students

This guide highlights five key practices for teachers and families to support all students, including students with disabilities, at school and home. For each practice, the guide provides (a) tips for teachers to support students with disabilities during instruction; (b) tips for families that educators can share to support or enhance learning at home, especially during periods of remote instruction; and (c) free-access resources that include strategies shown to be effective by research (e.g., informational guides, downloadable materials, research-based programs).

Overview of College Resources for Students with Disabilities

This guide explains your legal rights as a student with disabilities, both physical and learning disabilities, and the campus resources that can provide you with assistive services and tools. Additionally, Best Colleges lists a number of sites, apps, and software resources designed to aid students with specific types of disabilities, whether physical impairments or learning disabilities.

People in Later Life:


Resources for Seniors from ConnectSafely

This resource hub helps to demystify online access with pieces like “The Senior’s Guide to Online Safety,” “Senior’s Guide to TikTok,” and more. 


Internet basics: A complete guide for seniors

This guide by Taylor Gadsden was designed to be an educational starting point for those less than confident in their tech skills.


Generations On Line

Generations On Line has set out to reduce isolation among elderly populations and teach free digital skills to elders. All tutorials and resources are free.

For Organizations & Web Designers:


Inclusive design: 11 ways to make your website more accessible

Joe Rinaldi wrote this great resource with 11 steps you can take to make a website more accessible. 


5 Steps to More Inclusive Website Design

These five steps by Lisa Morgan outline a set of actions grouped around each category of disabilities. 


Inclusive Design: Making Websites Accessible to Everyone

Pop Art Studio lists these technical steps you can take to make the web more accessible for users.