Seminal Literature

The following materials have been collected to provide critical information relevant to Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program sustainability. For information on how to obtain print copies of these documents, submit a request to the NSVRC Library.


A National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Exams, 2nd Ed

U.S. Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women

This revised National Protocol for Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examinations provides detailed guidelines for health care practitioners and ancillary professionals in responding to the immediate medical-forensic needs of sexual assault patients.

Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Education Guidelines

International Association of Forensic Nurses

The Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Education Guidelines set forth the minimum level of instruction for each key target competency in the adult/adolescent and/or pediatric/adolescent populations, while allowing for flexibility to meet the educational needs of registered nurses in diverse practice settings and communities.

Evaluating the Work of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs in the Criminal 

Justice System: A Toolkit for Practitioners  

Rebecca Campbell, Megan Greeson, Nidal Karim, Jessica Shaw, & Stephanie Townsend

The goal of this Toolkit is to assist SANE program staff in evaluating how their program affects the prosecution of sexual assault cases in their community as one element of an evaluation model focusing on the work of SANEs in the criminal justice system.

The role of quality assurance versus continuous quality improvement

Jerry Goldstone

Journal of Vascular Surgery, 28(2), 378-80 August 1998

A brief, but well explained look at the difference between quality assurance and quality improvement for healthcare programs.


The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study

The ACE Study is an ongoing collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Kaiser Permanente. Led by Co-principal Investigators Robert F. Anda, MD, MS, and Vincent J. Felitti, MD, the ACE Study is perhaps the largest scientific research study of its kind, analyzing the relationship between multiple categories of childhood trauma (ACEs), and health and behavioral outcomes later in life.


First National SANE Coordinator Symposium: Final Report and Recommendations

National Sexual Violence Resource Center

This report provides an overview the National SANE Coordinator Symposium Project in order to increase SANE program development.


Prosecution of Sexual Assault Cases: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Program

Rebecca Campbell, Debra Patterson, Deborah Bybee

Violence Against Women,18(2), 223-244 2012

View Abstract

The study examined whether the impact of SANE programs implementation on investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault case and found that case progressions significantly increased within a large Midwestern county after a SANE program was established.  Practice and policy considerations are explored.


Responding to Sexual Assault Victims’ Medical and Emotional Needs: A National Study of the Services Provided by SANE Programs

Rebecca Campbell, Stephanie M. Townsend, Susan M. Long, Kelly E. Kinnison, Emily M. Pulley,S. Bibiana Adames, Sharon M. Wasco
Research in Nursing and Health,, 29(5), 384-98 October 2006

View Abstract

This national study measured consistency in SANE program services to sexual assault victims.  It found that SANE programs consistently offered forensic evidence collection, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prophylaxis, information on HIV and pregnancy risk, and referrals to community resources. The article explores fiscal, professional and political reasons SANE programs did not routinely provide STI screening, testing, and treatment and emergency contraception (EC).

The Effectiveness Of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (Sane) Programs: A Review of Psychological, Medical, Legal, and Community Outcomes

Rebecca Campbell, Debra Patterson, Lauren F. Lichty

Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Vol. 6, No. 4, October 2005

View Abstract

This article reviews the empirical literature regarding the effectiveness of SANE programs in five domains: (a) promoting the psychological recovery of survivors, (b) providing comprehensive and consistent postrape medical care (e.g., emergency contraception, sexually transmitted disease prophylaxis), (c) documenting the forensic evidence of the crime completely and accurately, (d) improving the prosecution of sexual assault cases by providing better forensics and expert testimony, and (e) creating community change by bringing multiple service providers together to provide comprehensive care to rape survivors. Preliminary evidence suggests that SANE programs are effective in all domains.  

From Novice to Expert to Mentor: Shaping the Future

Kathleen Dracup, Christopher W. Bryan-Brown

American Journal of Critical Care, 13: 448-50 November 2004

This editorial looks at the importance of nurse mentors and the stages nurses move through to become mentors.



This project was supported by Grant No. 2011-TA-AX-K077 awarded by the Office on Violence Against Women, U.S. Department of Justice (OVW DOJ). The opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed in this course are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the OVW DOJ.